The rise of the early internet birthed ideologies such as cyber-libertarianism, where individuals believed they could act in whatever capacity they choose to pursue their interests online (Thierer 2009).
The strive for information freedom fueled the rise of hacker subculture and the state of ‘hacktivism‘ we are living in today (Mitew 2018). Originally, the art of breaking in to computer systems and cracking uncrackable codes was limited to the military, a key example is Alan Turing‘s World War II Enigma Machine.
Hacking has now emerged as a popular practice among civilian internet goers. The subculture includes a playful element, as the idea of being able to break into a system that is usually seen as an impossible task becomes a reward in itself.
Phone Phreaking was the origin of the hacker subculture in the United States and globally, this is the unauthorised access of telecommunication networks (HOPP 2009). Phone Phreakers used a 2600 Hz frequency tone to establish a connection to the phone switchers. You can listen to the 2600 Hz frequency tone from my Soundcloud below.
*HEADPHONE USERS BEWARE*
Mitew, T 2018, ‘Digital Resistance: Hacktivists, whistleblowers, #AfterSnowden’, Prezi, 23 August, viewed 7 October, <https://prezi.com/hotqlxztvxdb/digital-resistance/>.
The History of Phone Phreaking 2009, What is Phone Phreaking?, viewed 7 October 2018, <http://www.historyofphonephreaking.org/faq.php>.
Thierer, A 2009, ‘Cyber-Libertarianism: The Case for Real Internet Freedom’, Tech Liberation, 12 August, viewed 7 October 2018, <https://techliberation.com/2009/08/12/cyber-libertarianism-the-case-for-real-internet-freedom/>.
Header Image Source: Jefferson Santos